the pta's busiest month to date ~ feb 2016 ~ 40,168 web hits

current weather @ pinhoti trail mid-point ~ s14 - 7.3 ~ cave spring trailhead

​​​​pinhoti national recreation trail / pinhoti millennium legacy trail

a 337.1 mile southern region appalachian trail connector

In case of emergencies, dial 911.​ This is the only public service that will know your exact location

Do phone reset first ~ go to settings / go to privacy / turn on location services (4300)

visit the georgia pinhoti trail association for the georgia section trail guides and trail info

black bear safety.

Great Smokey Mountains National Park

utube video

most all bear cannisters ~ amazon

bearicade website 

ursack and opsack ~ amazon

appalachian trail conservancy.

Black bears live along many parts of the Trail and are particularly common in Georgia, the Shenandoah and Great Smoky Mountains national parks, and parts of Pennsylvania and New Jersey. While attacks on humans are rare, a startled bear may react aggressively. The best way to avoid an encounter while you are hiking is to make noise by whistling, talking, etc., to give the bear a chance to move away before you get close enough to make it feel threatened. If you encounter a bear and it does not move away, you should back off, speaking calmly and firmly, and avoid making eye contact. Do not run or "play dead" even if a bear makes a "bluff charge." The best defense against bears in camp is preparing and storing food properly: 

Cook and eat your meals 200 feet away from your tent or shelter, so food odors do not linger. 
Hang your food, cookware, toothpaste, personal hygiene items, and even water bottles (if you use drink mixes in them) in a sturdy bag from a strong tree branch at least ten feet off the ground and 200 feet from your campsite. Make sure the bag is at least six feet from both the trunk of the tree and any substantial branches -- including the branch from which the bag is hung. Black bears are crafty climbers and good reachers.

Bear canisters can provide an effective alternative to hanging food bags. 
Where bear boxes, poles, or cable systems are provided, use them. Never leave trash in bear boxes. 
Never feed the bears or leave food behind for them. That simply increases the risks to you and the hikers who follow behind you. 

A bear that enters a campsite or cooking area should be considered predatory. Yelling, making loud noises, throwing rocks, may frighten it away, however, you should be prepared to fight back if necessary.

If you are actually attacked by a bear, you should fight for all you are worth with anything at hand – rocks, sticks, fists.

black bears.
This information was copied from the appalachian trails website.

11 bear safety tips.
Posted by: Sara Douma December 26, 2014 in Advice, Appalachian Trail Bloggers
As a child, my neighborhood had a phone chain for bear alerts, bears digging into our garbage cans and a little over a year ago I even found bear prints on the sunroof of my car while there. Seriously, what was this bear doing on my car? My parents were attentive and taught me early on how to react safely when I encountered these situations. Sadly, safety around wildlife is not taught early on to every person who makes their way into the woods. Those who haven’t taken the proper precautions put themselves at great risk.

In September 2014, my hometown made national news for a bear attack that occurred down the street from the house I grew up in. A hiker, Darsh Patel, was killed by a rogue bear while hiking with his friends. It was clear, after reading their story they were not properly prepared for what dangers were in the quiet park they hiked in.

Apshawa Perserve is used mainly by locals for a short walk or some fishing. When Patel and his friends entered the park they ran into other hikers who warned them that there was a bear acting aggressively in the area, it was following them on the trail and they told the group they should not proceed. Patel and his friends continued on despite the warning. They did later encounter the bear along the trail and paused with their phones to take photos from a distance. Alarm set in to the group as the bear began to approach them. In what was most likely a panic, the group split up running in separate directions. Some of the friends were able to find their way out of the park. They promptly called 911 when they noticed that Patel was still missing. Police found his body shortly after they began their search.

Bears in this area are frequently easy to scare. Yet, they are large dangerous creatures and your safety should still be a concern while traveling through their territory. My hometown warns of this with signs at many of the trail heads and articles online about safety. This group could have done better with this safety information and without it they did a number of things wrong during their encounter. I think it’s important that everyone know what to do, especially since I’ve experienced first hand the vast number of bears that live in the NY/NJ Appalachian Trail area.

Aside from this bear, which was uncommonly dangerous, there have been many bears needlessly killed in my hometown because of close contact with hikers and locals who were not following proper precautions. My hope is that others will take the time to learn what they need to know to avoid trouble.

I originally wanted this post to be my reaction to this local incident but I thought it would be a good use of my time to add tips for others who are unaccustomed to bear safety. The Appalachian Trail has bears and anyone who wants to hike it should know what to do to protect their lives and the lives of the local bears.

these tips are only for black bear encounters!
1) Never approach a bear. If you know a bear is in an area do not go in that area. Find another route.

2) If you have encountered a bear, remain calm, do not make eye contact and DO NOT RUN from it. Bears are much faster than you and running could trigger a bears instinct to chase. Instead, move calmly and slowly away from the bear leaving it an escape route.

3) To scare a bear away make loud noises and make yourself big. If you are with others, stand close together and continue to do this.

4) If a bear acts aggressively towards you by huffing, popping or snapping its jaw or swatting the ground, the bear wants space, back away slowly from the bear and speak to it in a calm voice. If a bear is standing on its hind legs, it is curious of you so try not to have a strong reaction and move away slowly.

5) Never drop food to distract a bear. This will only encourage the bear to approach more humans in the future.

6) Do not try to climb trees to escape a bear. Despite what TV might lead you to believe, are excellent climbers.

7) Bear spray is not normally needed for north eastern black bears but hiking with bear spray is a good idea because it can stun a bear in an encounter giving you time to reach a safe location.

8) Lastly, and I hope this never happens to anyone but if a bear is attacking, the best thing you can do is fight back.

to prevent a bear encounter.
9) Hang a bear bag at an appropriate distance from your campsite and pack out your trash. Food smells draw bears to that area and the promise of leftover garbage could invite a bear to return to that campsite at a later time.

10) While hiking in bear country, make loud noises to let any hidden bears know of your presence. They will most likely run before you know they were there. Talking loudly with a friend or belting a song works well. My friend Justin and I usually opt for something by Eminem but anything will do.

11) Always be safe and keep your eyes open to what’s around you!

Happy safehiking!

andrew skurka on bear bags & canisters.
Skurka (p.191, Ultimate Hiker's Gear Guide) mentions several BEAR CANISTERS: "My prefered canister is the WILD IDEAS BEARICADE which has the best weight-to-volume ratio; there are two models, the WEEKENDER $225, 31 oz, 650 cu in) & the EXPEDITION ($225, 37 oz, 900 cu in). 

Two lightweight more economical options are the BEAR VAULT BV450 ($65, 33 oz, 440 cu in) & BEAR VAULT BV500 ($80, 41 oz, 700 cu in). 

Where bear canisters are not required, Skurka uses OPSAKS: 

"I use polyethelene, odor-proof, 12"x20" Loksak Opsak bags ($4 ea, 1 oz). ...An Opsak holds about 5 days of food for me, at 4,500 calories & 2.25#s/day. I replace an Opsak after about a month of use (30 nights) when its seal usually fails." 

He also says "But you may find greater peace of mind by using an URSAK S29 ALLWHITE ($65, 8 OZ, 650 cu in), a soft-sided bear-resistant stuff sack made of Spectra fabric, the same material used in bullet-proof vests." 

"Preemptively avoiding bear encounters is the best way to avoid bear problems. So, I will not camp where I cook; I will not carry or cook strongly scented foods like bacon; and I will not camp in established sites or near high-use corridor trails."

^ climb up.

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